Author Archives: Dan Dumitrache

About Dan Dumitrache

Dan is a web developer based in Ireland and this is his WordPress blog.

03 – PHP echo and print statements

In PHP the echo and print statements are two basic ways of getting output.

They both output data on the screen but there are three small differences between them.

  • The echo statement has no return value while the print statement has a return value of 1, so it can be used in expressions.
  • The echo statement in PHP is a little bit faster than the print statement.
  • The echo can take multiple parameters while the print statement can take only one.

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02 – PHP Variables

In PHP, variables start with $ followed by the name of the variable. You don’t need any command or keyword for declaring variables in PHP.

Like in any other programming language, there are rules for declaring variables in PHP. Variables in PHP must start with a letter or an underscore sign. They can’t start with a number. A PHP variables can contain only letters, numbers and/or underscores (alphanumeric characters). They are also case sensitive.

<!DOCTYPE html>


$a = "Hi there!";
$A = 5;
$_ = 10.5;
$_a_b = "What a name!";

echo $a;
echo "<br>";
echo $A;
echo "<br>";
echo $_;
echo "<br>";
echo $_a_b;
echo "<br>";



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Python testing with unittest module | Testing mathematical operations

The unittest module is part of Python’s standard library and it is very popular when it comes to testing Python code. You need two files (preferably placed in the same directory), one file that contains the code that is tested and another file with the code that tests the code of the first file.

My first file is named and it contains basic functions I am going to test. The second file is named and it is going to contain the testing code.

I am referring to this documentation when writing the tests on this page:

Testing Python’s mathematical operators with unittest module

In order to start testing I have created the following basic functions in my file.

def addition(a, b):
	return a + b

def subtraction(a, b):
	return a - b

def multiplication(a, b):
	return a * b

def division(a, b):
	if b == 0:
		raise ValueError("Can't divide by zero!")
	return a / b

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Building a To Do Application in Python using Django Framework – Part 06

In this 6th part all I want to do is to display the todo items, that I created through the admin panel, on the web page. It turns out to be actually very easy.

First of all we have to modify the file, particularly the get_index() function. This is how my function looks like now:

from django.shortcuts import render
from .models import TodoItem

def get_todo_index(request):
    items = TodoItem.objects.all()
    return render(request, "todo/index.html", {'items': items})
def edit_todo_item(request, id):
    return render(request, "todo/edit.html")
def delete_todo_item(request, id):
    return render(request, "todo/delete.html")
def toggle_todo_item(request, id):
    return render(request, "todo/toggle.html")

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Building a To Do Application in Python using Django Framework – Part 05

In this 5th part we are going to create an HTML template which will be our template for all other HTML pages.

In the home’s template folder (same folder as index.html) create a file named base.html and add the following code into it:

{% load static %}
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
    <title>Todo App</title>

    <link rel="stylesheet" href="" integrity="sha384-Gn5384xqQ1aoWXA+058RXPxPg6fy4IWvTNh0E263XmFcJlSAwiGgFAW/dAiS6JXm" crossorigin="anonymous">
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="{% static 'home/style.css' %}" type="text/css" />
    <script defer src="" integrity="sha384-+Ga2s7YBbhOD6nie0DzrZpJes+b2K1xkpKxTFFcx59QmVPaSA8c7pycsNaFwUK6l" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>
    <script defer src="" integrity="sha384-7ox8Q2yzO/uWircfojVuCQOZl+ZZBg2D2J5nkpLqzH1HY0C1dHlTKIbpRz/LG23c" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>
    <div class="container-fluid">
        <header class="row bg-dark pl-5 pr-5">
            <div class="col-md-6 p-2">
                <h1 id="title" class="navbar-text text-light border border-light rounded-circle p-3">ToDo</h1>
            <nav class="col-md-6 text-right pt-4">
                <a href="{% url 'home' %}"><i class="fas fa-home text-light"></i></a>
                <a href="{% url 'todo_index' %}" class="pl-2"><i class="fas fa-list-alt text-light"></i></a>
                {% block content %}{% endblock %}
        <footer class="row bg-dark pt-3">
            <div class="col-md-12 text-center text-light">
                <img id="dan-pic" src="" class="rounded-circle m-3" ald="Dan Dumitrache - Full stack web developer">
                <p>Dan Dumitrache | Portfolio Project<br>
                Code Institute, Dublin<br>
                Jan 2018</p>
    <!-- =========== Bootstrap JavaScript ========== -->
    <script src="" integrity="sha384-JZR6Spejh4U02d8jOt6vLEHfe/JQGiRRSQQxSfFWpi1MquVdAyjUar5+76PVCmYl" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>
    <!-- =========== jQuery ========== -->
    <script src="" integrity="sha384-KJ3o2DKtIkvYIK3UENzmM7KCkRr/rE9/Qpg6aAZGJwFDMVNA/GpGFF93hXpG5KkN" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>
    <!-- =========== Popper ========== -->
    <script src="" integrity="sha384-ApNbgh9B+Y1QKtv3Rn7W3mgPxhU9K/ScQsAP7hUibX39j7fakFPskvXusvfa0b4Q" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>


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Building a To Do Application in Python using Django Framework – Part 04

In this fourth part we need to create a super user and make migrations. Once we have a username and a password we can connect to our admin panel and create todo items.

Step 1 – Make migrations and migrate

Before we can do anything in our admin panel we have to make migrations and migrate. This will create the tables in the database. This is easily done by running the following command in the terminal:

ddnro:~/workspace/todoapp $ python3 makemigrations
Migrations for 'todo':
    - Create model TodoItem

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Building a To Do Application in Python using Django Framework – Part 03

In this third part we are going to create the model for out todo item. The model is going to be created into the file named from within the folder todo. So, in the file paste the following code:

from django.db import models

class TodoItem(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length = 30, blank = False)
    done = models.BooleanField(blank = False, default = False)
    def __str__(self):

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